Population health equity is achieved through the reduction of avoidable differences in health outcomes at the population level. Population health inequalities are differences in health outcomes among individuals, specific groups, communities, and regions. Population health inequalities are apparent at all stages of the life-course from birth until old age. But the overwhelming proportion of health inequalities – including those between specific groups, communities, and regions – are not natural and result from exposures to adverse living circumstances that threaten health. There are also specific aspects of the environments of communities and regions that either support or threaten health thereby creating the conditions that impede the achievement of health equity such as lack of employment opportunities, lack of affordable housing, or presence of low-waged employment. Since much of these health inequalities are preventable through governmental action, the failure to address them therefore makes their presence unfair and unjust. They are therefore population health inequities.